Crimean War

   The Crimean War (1854-55) was a conflict between Russia and a coalition consisting of Turkey, Great Britain, France, and Sardinia that ended with the defeat of Russia and the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1856). The rival ambitions of Russia and Great Britain in the east and the pretext of the quarrel between napoléon III and Czar Nicholas I regarding the religious sites in the Holy Land, mixed with the Eastern Question, were the causes of this war. In response to the refusal of the Turkish sultan to recognize the czar's protectorate over Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, Russia occupied the Moldavian principalities and destroyed a Turkish fleet at Sinope (185 3), thus provoking the Franco-British alliance with Turkey and the intervention in the Crimea. The allied powers landed at Eupatoria (September 14, 1854); led by Marshal saint-arnaud and Lord Raglan, they defeated the Russians at Alma (September 20) and besieged Sevastopol for a year. Meanwhile, the Franco-British fleet destroyed the fortress of Bomarsund in the Baltic (1854), while odessa, on the Black Sea, was bombarded. The campaign, marked by the battles of Balaklava, Inkerman, and Tchernaia, continued with the victorious assault on Malakoff (September 1855), which led to the fall of Sevastopol. The Crimean War, in which a number of French military figures, including Generals mac-mahon and canrobert, served with distinction, helped to consolidate the second empire and brought a number of social reforms to Russia under Czar Alexander II, who began his reign in 1855.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Crimean War — Crimean War, the (1853 56) a war between Russia on one side, and Britain, France, Turkey, and Sardinia on the other. It started because Britain and France believed that Russia intended to take control of the Balkans (=southeast Europe) , and it… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Crimean War — n. a war (1853 56) over the domination of SE Europe, in which Great Britain, France, Turkey, and Sardinia defeated Russia …   English World dictionary

  • Crimean War — For other uses, see Crimean War (disambiguation). Crimean War Part of Ottoman wars in Europe Detail of …   Wikipedia

  • Crimean War — (1853–1856)    A Great Power conflict occurring midway between the Napoleonic Wars and World War I; it pitted the Ottoman Empire and its allies Britain, France, and Sardinia against the Russian Empire. The war had many causes, among which were… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Crimean war —    Russian diplomacy in the early 1850s played a critical role in isolating Russia in the first general European war since Waterloo. Disputes over European issues and the question of which country controlled sites in the Holy Land precipitated a… …   Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence

  • Crimean War — a war between Great Britain, France, Turkey, and Sardinia on one side, and Russia on the other, fought chiefly in the Crimea 1853 56. * * * (October 1853–February 1856) War fought mainly in the Crimea between the Russians and an alliance… …   Universalium

  • Crimean War — Crime′an War′ n. why a war involving Great Britain, France, Turkey, and Sardinia against Russia, fought chiefly in the Crimea 1853–56 …   From formal English to slang

  • Crimean War — noun a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia; 1853 1856 • Regions: ↑Crimea • Instance Hypernyms: ↑war, ↑warfare …   Useful english dictionary

  • CRIMEAN WAR —    a war carried on chiefly in the Crimea, on the part of Turkey aided by Britain and France, in which Sardinia eventually joined them, against the encroachments of Russia in the E., and which was proclaimed against Russia, March 24, 1854, and… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Crimean War — n. war that was fought from 1853 to 1856 mainly in the Crimea Peninsula between Russian on one side and other countries on the other side (Great Britain, France, Turkey, Ottoman Empireand Sardinia) …   English contemporary dictionary

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